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Morden Period

1800 Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) defeats the Austrians at the battle of Marengo; a French army captures Munich and defeats the Austrians at the battle of Hohenlinden; French begin the invasion of Austria.

1801 Alexander l (1777-1825) becomes tsar of Russia.
1801 Act of Union joins Ireland to Britain.

1801 Concordat joins church and state in France.
1801 Austria makes the peace of Luneville with France.
1801 Russia makes peace with France and joins the neutral Northern Coalition.

1802 Britain makes the peace of Amiens with France; peace is established throughout Europe.

1802 Bonaparte (1769-1821) becomes consul for life and president of the Italian republic; France annexes Piedmont.

1803 Switzerland regains its independence.
1803 Russia annexes Georgia.
1803 France occupies Hanover and prepares to invade Britain.

1804 Bonaparte is crowned Napoleon I emperor of France by the pope; the Code Napoleon law code is issued.

1804 Kara George (1766-1827) leads a Serbian insurrection against the Turks.
1805 Britain forms a third Coalition with Russia, Sweden and Austria to make war on France; an Austrian army surrenders atUlm; British under Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) win the naval battle of Trafalgar; French occupy Vienna; Napoleon defeats the Russians and Austrians atthe battle of Austerlitz; Austrians sign the treaty of Pressburg; Napoleon becomes king of Italy.

1806 Turks, allied to France, attack the Russians.
1806 Napoleon organizes German states into a pro-French Confederation of the Rhine; his brother Joseph Bonaparte (1769-1844) becomes king of Naples; the Holy Roman Empire is dissolved; Prussia attacks the French and is defeated atthe battles of Jena and Auerstadt, Napoleon occupies Berlin and proclaims a blockade of Britain Ithe Continental Systeml,

1807 French defeat the Prussians, capture Danzig and defeat the Russians at the battle of Friedland; peace of Tilsit ends fighting between France and Russia allied to Prussia; grand duchy of Warsaw is created in Poland; British destroy the Danish fleet; French marshal Andache Junot (1771-1813) canquersPortugal.

1808 Russia conquers Finland from Sweden.
1808 French troops invade Spain; Charles IV (1748-1819) abdicates and Joseph Bonaparte becomes king, marshal Joachim Murat (1767-1815) takes the throne of Naples; British troops under Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) land in Portugal and force a French evacuation; a Spanish revoij is suppressed by Napoleon.

1809 French win the battle of Coruna, force the British out of Spain, and invade Portugal; an Austrian uprising is defeated by Napoleon at the battle of Wagram; Austria signs the peace of Schonbrunn.

1810 Napoleon marries Marie Louise (1791-1847), daughter of Austrian emperor Francis l (1768-1835); France annexes Holland; in Spain Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) captures Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz from the French and defeats them atthe battle of Salamanca.

1811-12 Machine-breaking Luddite riots occur in Britain.
1812 Turks cede Bessarabia (part of Romanial) to Russia,

1812 Napoieon invades Russia, wins the battles of Smolensk and Borodino, and occupies Moscow; the Russians burn Moscow and the French withdraw; most of the retreating French army dies.

1812 Liberal constitution is adopted by the Cortes of Spain.
1812 Russia gains control of Poland.
1813 Prussia declares war on France and is joined by Britain, Sweden and Austria; Napoleon is defeated atthe battle ofthe Nations at Leipzig; Holland and Italy are freed from French rule;Weliesley wins the battle of Vittoria and drives the French from Spain; Swedes under French general Jean Bernadotte (1763-1844) invade pro-French Denmark.

1814 Sweden and Norway are united under the Swedish king.
1814 Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) is restored as king of Spain; Prussians under Gebhard BlUcher (1742-1819) invade N France; British capture Bordeaux and Paris is occupied; a pro. visional government under Charles Talleyrand (1754-1838) exiles Napoleon to Elba; Louis XVIII (1755-1824) becomes king of France and issues a liberal constitution; peace of Paris restores the borders of Europe to the status quo of 1792; Austrian foreign minister Klemens Metternich (1773-1859) organizes the congress of Vienna; Wellesley becomes duke of Wellington,

1815 Napoleon (1769-1821) lands in s France, assembles an army, and marches to Paris; Louis XVIII (1755-1824) flees to Belgium; Austrians defeat Joachim Murat (1767-1815) atthe battle otTolentino; Ferdinand I (1751-1825) is restored as the king of the Two Sicilies; Napoleon invades Belgium and

1830 William IV (1765-18271 becomes king of Britain.
1830 Revolution in Paris overthrows Charles X (1757-1836); Louis Philippe I (1773-1850) becomes king of France with a more liberal constitution.

1830 Revolutionaries in Brussels declare Belgian independence from the Netherlands.
1830 Rising in Warsaw led by Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861) establishes a Polish national government.
1830 German revolutionaries force the rulers of Saxony and Brunswick to abdicate.

1831 Russian troops crush the Polish rebels. 1831 Leopold l (1790-1865) becomes king of Belgium with a liberal constitution.
1831 Nationalist risings in the Italian cities of Parma and Modena are suppressed by the Austrians.

1832 Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-72) founds the Young Italy movement.
1832 Poland is made a province of Russia.
1832 British parliament is reformed.
1833 German revolutionaries force the ruler of Hanover to issue a constitution.
1833 Maria ll (1819-53) is restored to the Portuguese throne.
1833 lnfant Isabelia ll (1830-1904) becomes queen of Spain.

1834 German Zollverein (customs union ) is formed under Prussian leadership.
1834 Isabella`s brother Don Carlos (1789-1845) claims the Spanish throne; start of the Carlist War.
1834 Bepublican revolts in French cities are repressed.

1835 Ferdinand I (1793-1875) becomes Austrian emperor. 1836 Louis Napoleon (1809-73) attempts to seize power in France and is exiled to America.

1836 Rebeliion in Spain forces the regent Maria Christina (1806-78) to grant a new constitution.

1837 Victoria (1819-1901) becomes queen of Britain; Hanover is separated from Britain.
1837 Under Austrian influence, the constitution of Hanover is withdrawn.

1838 British advocates of free trade John Bright (1811-89) and Richard Cobden (1805-65) found the Anti-Corn Law league.

1838 Protestant cantons in Switzerland adopt more liberal constitutions.
1839 First Carlist War in Spain ends when Don Carlos (1789-1845) leaves the country.
1839 Radical Chartists cause riots in Britain.
1839 The Netherlands recognizes the independence of Belgium and the grand duchy of Luxembourg by the treaty 01 London.
1841 Frederick William VI (1795-1861) becomes king of Prussia.
1890 Louis Napoleon (1809-73) attempts another coup in France and is imprisoned.
1841 General Baldomero Espartero (1793-1879) makes himself dictator in Spain.
1841 Britain, France and Russia agree to aid Turkey and send troops to Palestine.

1841 Straits Convention closes the Oardanelles Ithe entrance to the Black Seal to non-Turkish warships.
1842 Rising in Barcelona, Spain, declares a republic, which is crushed by Espartero.
1843 Coup overthrows Espartero in Spain; Queen Isabelia II (18300-1904) is declared of age.

1843 Revolution forces King Otto l (1815-67) of Greece to grant a constitution.
1844 Anti-industrial rebellion by Prussian weavers is suppressed by troops.

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