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Modern Period

1800 French defeat the Turks and Egyptians outside Cairo.

1801 Yusef Karamanli of Tripoli demands an increased pirate protection bribe from the USA and declares war; the USA blockades Tripoli; start of the Tripolitanian War.

1801 British defeat the French at Alexandria.

1802 French withdraw from Egypt

1802 British,return Cape Colony to the Dutch.

1803 Tripdlitanians capture the US ship Philadelphia.

1804 US forces capture the port of Derna near Tripoli.

1804 Usman dan Fodio (1754-1817) leads theFulani people against the Hausa states in Nigeria and establishes the Sakata caliphate.

1805 Ottoman governor Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) seizes power in Egypt.

1805 Tripolitanian War ends when the bey otTunis renounces the right to levy pirate-protection bribes on the USA.

1806 British recapture Cape Colony in South Africa.

1807 Slave trade is abolished throughoutthe British empire; a w African naval patrol is established to enforce the ban. 1807 British, allied to Russia, occupy Alexandria but withdraw after Turkish opposition.

1809 British capture Senegal from the French.

Australia Explorers during the early 19th centUry sailed around uncharted coasts of Australia and probed the interior from settled areas in the southeast. They journeyed up the great rivers and across mountains and deserts in search of fertile land and an inland sea which they believed to exist. The map shows areas explored between 1800 and 1830.

1810 British capture Mauritius and Reunion from the French.

1810 Radarna I (1791-1828) becomes king of the Hovas in Madagascar and encourages British influence.

1811 Muhammad Ali secures his position in Egypt by massacring Mameluke generals in Cairo.

1815 US navy threatens to bombard Algiers unless piracy against American shipping ends.

1815 France abolishes the slave trade.

1815 Revolt by Boers is suppressed by British troops in South Africa.

1817 Senegal is returned to French control.

1819 Zulu people under King Shaka 11787-18281 establish control ofthe Natal region of South Africa.

1830 French invade Algeria and occupy the cities of Algiers and Oran.

1831 Britain signs a peace treaty with the Ashanti.

1831 Mfecane Wars spread N to Zimbabwe.

1831 French foreign legion is founded in Algeria.

1832 Abd al-Kadir (1809,-83) becomes leaderofthe Algerian resistance.

1834 Slavery is abolished throughoutthe British empire.

1835 Mfecane Wars spread furtherN to Zambia and Malawi.

1835 Turks overthrow the Karamanli dynasty in Tripoli and impose direct rule.

1835 Boers in South Africa begin the GreatTrek to escape British repression. 1836 Abd al-Kadir (1809-83) occupies the inland Algerian city of Mascara.

1837 Boers establish the republic of Natal to the NE of the British Cape Colony.

1838 Boers in Natal inflict a heavy defeat on the Zulus.

18401 Sultan of Oman, Sayyid Said (1791-1856), makes Zanzibar his capital.

1841 Algerian leader Abd al-Kadir is driven into Morocco by the French.

1842 French sign trade treaties with chieftains of the Ivory Coast in w Africa.

1843 British conquer Natal from the Boers.

1843 Basutoland in s Africa comes under British protection 1843 The Gambia is made a separate British colony.

1844 French acquire Gabon in w central Africa.

1844 French bombard Tangier in Morocco and defeat al-Kadir and his Moroccan allies atthe battle of Isly.

Neoclassicism A movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, neoclassicism was inspired by the forms of Greek and Roman art. In architecture, the trend culminated with the Greek revival buildings of Karl Schinkel, such as the Old Museum (1822-30) in Berlin, built to house the art collection of the Prussian state.

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