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Medieval Period

1606 Turkey makes peace with Austria.
1609 Dutch conquer Ceylon Ipresent,day Sri Lanka) from the Portuguese.
1609 Dutch establish a trading post at Hirado, w Japan.
1609 Persians defeat the Turks at the battle of Urmia and recapture Baghdad.

1610 Russian expansion into Siberia reaches the River Yenisei.
1612 England gains trading rights at Surat in India after defeat ing the Portuguese in a naval battle.

1615 Nomad tribes of Manchuria fonm a mil~ary coal~ion under their leader Nurhachi 11559-16261.

1615 Japanese ruler Tokugawa leyasu (1543-1616) destroys Osaka castle after a siege.

1619 Dutch establish the fo~ied port of Batavia (present,day Jakarta) on the island of Java.
1620 English defealthe Portuguese althe sea battle of Jask off the w coast of India.

1622 English, allied with the Persians, capture Honmuz from the Portuguese.
1623 Dutch massacre English merchants on the island of Amboina.
1624 Spanish traders are expelled from Japan.
1624 Dutch establish a trading post on the island of Formosa.
1625 Janissaries Islave soldiersl revoh against Ottoman rule in Turkey.

163S-37 Manchurian confederation conquers s Mongolia and Korea.
1637 Christian-led Shimabara rebellion is suppressed in Japan. 1638 Japan is closed to foreigners.

1638 Ottoman Turks under Murad IV 11607-16401 recapture Baghdad.
1639 Treaty of Kasr-i-Shirim establishes a penmanent border between Turkey and Persia.
1639 English acquire a s~e for a colony at Madras in India.

~ Augsburg Town Hall in s Germany was designed in the Palladian style 11615-291 by Elias Hall. The building`s three storey Golden Hall was destroyed in World War 2.

1640- 1641 Dutch capture the Malaysian port of Malacca from the Portuguese.

1641 Dutch traders are permitted to operate from an island in Nagasaki harbour in Japan.

1643 Dutch explorer Abel Tasman 116~591 discovers New Zealand and Tasmania.

1644 Manchurians enter Beijing at the invitation of the last Ming emperor; end of the Ming dynasty in China; start of the Qing dynasty.

1645 Russian explorers in Siberia reach the Sea of Okhotsk.

1648 Janissaries revoh in Turkey and depose Suhan Ibrahim I 11615-481.

1652 Russian colonists found the city of Irkutsk in Siberia.
1656 Ottoman Turks are defeated by the Venetians at a sea battle near the Dardanelles.

1656 Muhammad KoprUlu (c.158&--1661) becomes Ottoman vizier Ichief minister) and stabilizes the Ottoman empire.
~ Royalist captain of infantry (left) and cuirassier (right) The Royalist cavalry was superior in number to the Parliamentarian forces at the start of the War, but the formation of the New Model Army tipped the balance.

1662 Kang-Xi (1654--17221 becomes emperor of China.

1664 Hindu raiders sack the Mogul port of Surat in India.
1664 Russian cossacks raid N Persia.
1669 Hindu religion is prohibited throughout the Mogul empire in India and Hindu temples are destroyed.

1674 French establish a colony at Pondicherry in,lndia. 1614 Hindu raider Sivaji 11630-801 becomes indepepdent ruler of Maratha in India.

1674 Regional rulers rebel against central controlin China. 167&-18 Sikhs rebelagainsttheir Mogul overlords in India.

1681 Manchu Ging dynasty re-establishes central control in China.
1683 Ging dynasty conquers the island of Formosa, which comes under direct rule from the Chinese mainland for the first time. 1685 Mogul emperor Aurangzeb 11619-17071 attempts to expel English merchants from Surat

1689 Russian settlers are forced to withdraw from NW China; the treaty of Nerchinsk establishes the Russian~Chine$eborder in the Amur region.
1690 English establish a colony at Calcutta, N India.

1691 Mogul empire in India reaches its greatest extent
1696 Chinese establish a protectorate in N Mongolia.
1700 Charles Eyre reorganizes the administration of English Bengal.
1703 The `Forty-seven ronir,. avenge the execution of their lord in Japan, and are ordered to commit suicide.

1705 Chinese attemptto impose their candidate!or Dalai,Lama provokes risings and unrest in Tibet 1701 Death of Emperor Aurangzeb leads to the rapid disintegration of the Mughal empire in India. 1708 Sikhs establish independent control of the Punjab region ofN India.

1709 Mir Vais, Afghan chieftain of Kandahar, rebels against Persian rule and proclaims independence.

1735 Russia allies w~h Persia against the Turks, who are defeated at the battle of Baghavand.

1736 Nadir becomes shah of Persia on the death of Abbas III; end of the Safavid dynasty.

1737 Persians invade Afghanistan.
1739 Persians,invade India, defeat aNlughal army at the battle of Kamal, and capture Delhi.

1740 -1742 Marathas raid Brrtish Bengal in India.
1744 AI-Saud family of centraFArabia allies with the new Wahhabi Islamic sect

1745 Persians under Nadir Shah (16B6-`1747) defeatttj8 Turks at the battle of Kars.
1746 French capture Madras from the British,
1747 Nadir Shah is assassinated, leading to a period of anarchY in Persia.
1747 Ahmad Shah 11122-"13) establishes tho` Afghan national state ruled by the Durrani dynasty.

1748 British besiege the French port o(Pondicherryin.. India. 1748 Madras is returned to the British.

~ French fashion, 1750lntb~ 18th cl?i)M Paris was at th~ forefront of fashion,Aithough colours and styles varied, th~ oytfit~ sbqw(l h~re wer~ typical of the periodWQm~o wOre hooped skirts of various vyidtf!~;with a fitt~d overcoat called a contouche. 80th m~n and women powdered their hilir(JreV or0lhit~.

1750 Tibetans rebel against Chinese overlordship.
1750 French colonial administrator Joseph [)upleix 11697&1763) wins the battle ofTanjore and ga.lns cOn/roFofthe Camatic region of s India.

1750 Karim Khan (1705-79) establishes himse~ as shah of Persia and founds the Zand dynasty.

1751 China invades Tibet 1751 British colonial administrator Robert Clive (1725-74) captures Arcot and ends French control of the Carnatic.

1752 British troops under Robert Clive capture Trichinpolyin s India from the French. 1752 Afghans capture the city of lahore in N India from the Mughals.

1753-55 King Alaungpaya 11711-801 reunrtes Burma, wrth Brrtish assistance, and founds a new caprtal crty at Rangoon, 1755 Afghans conquer the Punjab region Delhi.

1756 Indian ruler of Bengal captures Calcutta from the Brrtish and imprisons British soldiers in the `Black Hole`.

1757 Robert Clive recaptures Calcutta and defeats~ ruler of Bengal at the battle of Plassey.

1758 Marathas occupy the Punjab region ofN India, 1758 China occupies ETurkistan.

1760 British defeatthe French atthe battle afWandiwash in s India.

1760 Chinese emperor declares that all foreign trade shall pass through the port of Canton (Guangzhou).

1761 British capture Pondicherryfrom the French.
1761 Hyder Ali (1722-82) makes himself ruler of Mysore in s India.
1761 Afghans invade N India and defeatthe Marathas at the battle of Panipat.

1762 Afghans defeat the Sikhs at Lahore.
1762 British bombard Manila and capture the Philippines from Spain.
1763 British establish a trading-post at Bushire in sw Persia. 1764 British return the Philippines to Spain.

1764 British defeat a nabve coalition atthe battle of Baskar and gain control o/the whole of Bengal.

1765--69 Chinese invade Burma and establish overlordship.
1767 Burma invades and conquers Thailand.

1767-$ War between British troops and the Indian state of Mysore ends in a truce.

1768 French explorer Louis de Bougainville 11729--1811) claims Tahiti for France. ~ North America The pattern of settlement in America between 1700 and 1774. In the 17th century the English and the French went to the West Indies and North America. After 1700 free migration, as distinct from the importation of African slaves, was nearly all into the English colonies of the E seaboard.

1770 British establish a trading-post at Basra, s Iraq.
1770 British explorer James Cook (1729--79) lands at Botany Bay and claims SE Australia for Britain.

1773 British merchants obtain a monopoly over opium produc bon in Bengal.

1774 British appoint Warren Hastings (1732-1818) as governor of India; he begins a series of economic and administrative reforms.

1774 White Lotus Society foments a rebellion in NE China. 1775 War breaks out between the British and the Marathas in India.

1775 Persians attack and briefly capture Basra from the British.

1778 Britishforces attack and capturePondicherry, S Ihgia. from the French.
1778 James Cook discovers Hawaii.
1779 British force defeats the Marathas alSurat.

~ American Revolution Illustrated right are an American soldier, left. and a British soldier, right. British "redcoats" were professional soldiers who were generally superior in conventional battles to the imperfectly trained American volunteers. Commander in chief George Washington kept the American army in existence despite repeated disappointments and used the American skill in guerrilla tactics to wear down the British until they could be outmanoeuvred.

1792 Ranj~ Singh (178G-1839) becomes king of the Sikhs.

1793 Burma under King Bodawpaya Id.1819) acquires coastal terr~ory Thailand.
1793 French royalists surrender Pondicherry to the Br~ish. 1793 Shogun lenari Id.1838) takes personal control of the Japanese government

1793 Chinese emperor refuses to lift restrictions on the import of British goods.

1793 First free settlers arrive in Australia.
1794 last Persian shah of the Zand dynasty is killed and Aga Muhammad (d.1797) founds the Kajar dynasty.

1794 British capture the Seychelles from the French.

1795 Br~ish take Dutch Malacca to deny ilto the French., 1796 Br~ain `conquers Ceylon Ipresent-day Sri Lanka) from the Dutch.

1796 Jia Qing (d.1820) becomes Chinese emperor and begins campaigns to suppress the WMe Lotus society.

1798 Persians under Shah Fath Ali (1771-1834) attack Afghanistan.

1799 Tipu Suhan is killed fighting against British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852).

1799 French invade Syria and capture Jaffa but withdraw alter an outbreak of plague. ... Ding dynasty This Manchurian dynasty of China reached its greatest extent at the end of the 18th century. Its authority spread to Mongolia, Tibet and Turkistan and to Burma, Nepal and Annam (present-day Vietnam). As the empire grew in size and wealth. European expansion in search of trade threatened its security and stability.

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