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Medieval period

1603 James VI (156-1625) of Scotland inherits the English throne as James I on the death of Elizabeth I; end of the Tudor dynasty, start 01 the Stuart dynasty.

1604 Protestant Charles lX (1550-1611) becomes Kng of Sweden.
1605 Gunpowder Plot lails to blow up the English Parliamen, Guy Fawkes (b.1570) executed for treason the lollowing year.
1608 Protestant Union of German rulers formed.

1609 Catholic League of German rulers formed.
1609 Truce ends the fighting in the Netherlands between Philip ll(1578--1621) of Spain and the Dutch rebels.

1610 Henry IV (b.1553) of France assassinated; Louis XIII (1601-43) becomes king, with his mother Marie de` Medici (1573-1642) as regent
1610 Poland invades Russia and occupies Moscow in an attempt to gain control of the Russian throne.
1613 Following the expulsion of the Poles, Michael Romanov (d.1645) becomes Tsar of Russia; start of Romanov dynasty.
1617 Under the Peace of Stolbovo with Sweden, Russia loses access to the Bahic Sea.
1618 Protestant revolt in Prague Ithe second defenestrationl begins the Bohemian War; it marks the start of the Thirty Years` War.

Harvey was one of England`s most prestigious physicians, being successively physician to James I and Charles I.

1620 Catholic victory at the Battle of the White Mountain lead, to the dissolution of the Protestant Union in Genmany.
1621 Gustavus ll (1594-1632) of Sweden creates the first modern army and conquers Livonia from Poland.

1621 Warfare between the Dutch and Spanish renews.
1625 Huguenots rebel in NW France.
1625 Charles I (1600-.49) becomes King of England, Scotland,and Ireland.

1625 Christian iV (1577-1648) of Denmark intervenes as leader of the Protestants in Genmany; start of the Danish phase of the Thirty Years` War.

1628 French forces under chief minister Cardinal Anmand Richelieu capture the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle.
1629 After defeat by Catholic armies, Denmark withdraws from German politics under the Peace of Lubeck.
1630 Gustavus II of Sweden lands in N Germany in support of the Protestants; start of the Swedish phase of the Thirty Years` War.

1631 Swedes defealthe German Catholics atthe battle 01 Breitenfeld and invade s Germany.
1632 Gustavus II dies following his victory at the Battle of Lutzen.
1635 Catholic victory at the Battle of Nordlingen forces the Swedes out of s Germany; France enters the Thirty Years War as Sweden`s ally.

1640 Portugal and Catalonia revolt against Spanish rule.
1640 Frederick William (1621-88) becomes Great Elector of Prussia.
1642 Civil War breaks out in England between Royalists and Parliamentarians.
1646 French and Swedes invade Bavaria in s Germany.
1648 Spain recognizes Dutch independence.

1648-53 Fronde rebellions erupt in France.
1648 Treaty of We stphali a ends the Thirty Years` War.
1649 Charles I (b.1600) of England executed; the monarchy abolished and a Commonwealth established.
1652 Spain reunited when Catalonia submits to Spanish rule.
1652-54 England wins a naval war against the Dutch over shipping rights.
1653 Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) becomes lord Protector of England.
1654 Cossacks in the Ukraine defect from Poland to Russ,", starting a war.
1656 War breaks out between Protestant and Catholic cantons in Swmerland.
1656 English ships capture a Spanish treasure fleet near the port of Cadiz.
1656 Swedes invade Poland and capture Warsaw.
1658 English, allied with the French, capture the Spanish-held port of Dunkirk after the Battle of the Dunes.
1659 Peace of the Pyrenees ends recentwartare between France and Spain.

1660 Monarchy is re-established in England with the accession of Charles ll (1630-85).
1660 By the peace of Olivia, Sweden gains territory from Poland.
1661 On the death.ofcardinal Mazarin Ib.I6021, Louis XIV (1638--1715) becomes sale ruler of France.

1662-63 Spanish invade Portugal in an attemptto re-establish control, but are defeated.
1664 Austria defeats the Ottoman Turks atthe battle of St Gotthard.
1665 War breaks out between the Dutch, supported by France, and England.
1667 By the treaty of Andrussovo, Russia acquires E Ukraine from Poland.
1667 France occupies Spanish towns in Flanders.
1668 Spain recognizes Portuguese independence.
1669 Ottoman Turks capture Crete from Venice.
1670 Peasants and cossacks revolt in s Russia.

1674 German emperor enters the wars against France.
1675 Prussian army defeats France`s ally Sweden at the battle of Fehrbellin.

1678 French capture the towns of ypres and Ghent in Belgium from Spain.
1678 Treaties of Nijmegen end the wars between France and the Dutch, Germans and Spanish; France gains territory from Spain.

1683 Ottoman Turks under Vizier Kara Mustafa (1634-83) hesiege Vienna and are defeated by a German.Polish army at the battle olthe Kahlenberg.

1683 French under Louis XIV (1638--1715) invade Belgium and occupy Luxembourg and Lorraine.
1684 Venice, Austria and Poland form a Holy Alliance against the Turks.
1685 Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes in France (1598).
1686 German rulers form the League of Augsburg against France.

1688 France invades the Rhineland region of Germany.
1688 Austrian armies liberate Belgrade from the Turks.

1688 Glorious Revolution in England deposes Catholic king James ll (1633-1701); the Dutch Protestant ruler William of Orange (1650--1702) becomes William III of England.

1689 Peter I (1672-1725) becomes sale ruler of Russia.
1689 England and the Netherlands join the League of Augsburg against France.
1690 William III of England defeats French troops under former king James II atthe bettle of the Boyne in Ireland.

1692 English and Dutch ships defeat a French fleet at Cap La Hogue.
1696 Russians capture Azov from the Turks.
1697 Austrians defeat the Turks althe battle of Zenta.
1697 Peace of Ryswick ends the War o!the League of Augsburg against France.
1699 Turks lose territory to the Holy Alliance under the peace of Kalowitz.

1700 Sweden is attacked by Poland, allied to Denmark and Russia; start of the Great Northern War. Swedes, under Charles XII (1682-1718). defeat the Russians under Peter I (1672-1725) at the battle of Navara.

1700 Charles II (b.1661) of Spain dies childless; the French duke of Anjou is proclaimed King Philip V (1683-1746); end of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain; start of the Bourbon dynasty.

1701 Frederick lll (1657-1713) of Brandenburg is crowned Frederick I king of Prussia at Konigsburg.
1701 England, Holland and Austria form the Grand Alliance against France.

1701 Grand Alliance declares war on France and Spain; the War olthe Spanish Succession begins.
1702 William Ill`s daughter Anne (1665-1714) becomes queen of England.

1702 Swedes invade Poland and capture Warsaw and Krakow.
1703 Peter I establishes the city of St Petersburg at the mouth of the River Neva.
1704 English army led by John Churchill (1650-1722), 1st Duke of Marlborough, deleats the French at the battle of Blenheim.
1706 Following their defeat at Turin, the French are expelled from Italy.

1706 English dele at the French atthe battle of Ramilles and conquer Belgium.
1707 England and Scotland are united as Great Britain.
1709 British defeat the French atthe battle of Malplaquet 1709 Swedes in alliance with Ukrainian cossacks invade Russia but are deleated atthe battle of Poltava.

1710 South Sea Company is set up in London.
1711 Turks regain Azov from Russia underthe treaty of Pruth.
1711 Following an uprising, Austria grants Hungary sell-admin istration under the peace of Sathmar.

1711 Charles XII (1682-1718) of Sweden persuades the Turks to attack Russia.
1713 Treaty of Utrecht between Britain and France ends the War of the Spanish Succession; Britain gains overseas colonies in the Mediterranean and America.
1713 Frederick William l (1688-1740) becomes king of Prussia.
1713 Austrian emperor Charles VI (1685-1740) issues the pragmatic Sanction, which allows a lemaleto inherit the Habsburg throne.
1714 Russia captures Finland lrom Sweden after victory at the battle of Storkyro.
1714 Austria makes a separate peace with France and gains territory in Italy and Belgium.
1714 George, Elector of Hanover, becomes King George I (1660-1727) of Britain on the death of Queen Anne (b.1665).
171S~ouis XV 11710-74) becomes king of France with Philip of Orleans as regent. 1}IS First Jacobite rebellion in Scotland is defeated by BrITish troops.

1717 Spain conquers Sardinia.
1711 Austria liberates Belgrade from the Turks.
1118 Spainconqtiers Sicily; Britain, Austria, France and Holland fO[l11tJje Quadruple Alliance and deleat Spain at the sea battle pf Cape Passaro.
1719 Russia invades Sweden.
17200efeat in the Great Northern War ends Swedish dominance in the Baltic region; Russia gains Livonia and Estonia Underttie treaty of Nystad.
1720 Savoy gains Sardinia in return for Austrian control of Sicily. 1120Collapse of John Law`s Mississippi Company leads to widespread bankruptcies in France.
1720 South Seas Company fails and creates linancial panic in London.
1721 Robert Walpole 11678-17451 becomes Britain`s first prime minister. 1}2Z Peter I (1672-1725) makes administrative reforms in Russia and limits the traditional privileges olthe aristocracy.
1723 Frederick William 111688-17401 establishes the General Directory for the centralized administration of Prussia.

1725 French king Louis XV 11710-741 breaks his engagementto a Spanish princess and marries the daughter olthe ex-king of poland; as a result the Spanish make an alliance with Austria.
1725 Following the death of Peter I, his wITe Catherine I (1684-17271 becomes the first of a series 01 weak Russian rulers.

1726 Cardinal Andre Hercule de Fleury 11653-17431 becomes chief minister in France.
1727 George 11(1683-17601 accedes to the British throne.
1727 War breaks out between Spain and Britain allied with France.
1729 Treaty of Seville ends the war between BrITain and Spain.
1729 Corsicarevolts against Genoese rule.
1732 Genoa suppresses the Corsican revolt.
1732 Military conscription is introduced in Prussia.
1733-35 Russia invades Poland after the death of King Augustus II (1670-1733); France allied to Spain fights the War of the Polish Succession against Austria allied to Russia.

1733 Treaty Ithe first Family Compactl between France and Spain declares the indivisibilrty oflhe two branches of the Bourbon dynasty.
1734 Russians capture Danzig in Poland.
1734 Spanish troops conquer Sicily and Naples from Austria .
1735 Charles lll (1716-88), son of Philip V (1683-1746) of Spain, becomes king of Sicily and Naples.

1735 French troops occupy lorraine.
1736-39 War between Austria allied to Russia and the Turks resuks in Russia regaining Azov and Austria losing Serbia.
1738 Treaty of Vienna settles the War of the Polish Succession; Spain gains Naples and Sicily on condITion they are never united with Spain; France gains the promise of Lorraine.

1738 Carve. system of forced labour for road repairs is introduced in France.
1739 War of Jenkin`s Ear breaks out between BrITain and Spain.
1740 Frederick William Ilb.(688) of Prussia dies and is suc. ceeded by Frederick Il ( the Great, 1712-86}.
1740 Austrian emperor Charles Vl (b.I6B5) dies; underme Pragmatic Sanction his daughter Maria Theresa (1717-8O) becomes empress.
1740 War oflhe Austrian Succession begins when Frederick II (the Great) invades Austrian-controlled Silesia in me first Silesian War.
1741-43 Sweden attacks Russia, but is defeated and forced to cede parts of Finland.

1741 France, Spain and Prussia ally against Austria.
1742 Austrians make a separate peace with Prussia, ceding Silesia under the treaty of Breslau and Berlin.
1743 Holland allies with Britain and Austria against France.
1743 France and Spain strengthen their alliance, with me second Family Compact.
1743 British led Pragmatic Army defeats me French at the bettie of Dettingen.
1744 Prussians invade Bohemia in the second Silesian War.
1745 French defeatthe Pragmatic Army at the battle of Fontenoy.
1745 Second JacoMe rebellion breaks out in Scotland.
1746 British troops defeat the JacobITe Scots atme battle of Culloden and the rebellion ends.

1746 French conquer Austrian-controlled Belgium.
1747 Orangists restore the monarchy in Holland.
1748 Treaty of Aix-Ia-Chapelle ends the War ofthe Austrian Succession; Prussia emerges as a major European power.

1750 Joseph l (1714-771 becomes king of Portugal, although the real ruler is his chief minister the future marques de PombaI (1699-1782).
1753 Wenzel von Kaunrtz (1711-94) becomes chancellor of Austria. His negotiations, through me marquise de Pompadour (1721-84), the mistress of louis XV, persuade France to ally wrth Austria.
1755 Portuguese caprtal, Usbon, is destroyed by an earthquake.
1756 French capture the island of Minorca from me British.
1756 Russia and Sweden join the Franco-Austrian alliance against Prussia.

1756 Prussia allies with Brrtain, invades Saxony, and starts the Seven Years War.
1757 Prussia invades Bohemia and defeats the French and Austrians atthe battle of Rossbach in Bohemia.
1757 William Pitt the Elder (1707-78) becomes prime minister of Britain.
1758 Prussians fight the Russians to a standstill at me battle of Zorndorf in s Germany.
1759 Combined Austrian-Russian army defeats the Prussians at the battle of Kunersdorf.
1759 British defeat the French at the naval battle of Quiberon Bay.

1759 Prussians defeat the French atthe battle of Minden.
1759 Jesuits are expelled from Portugal.
1759 Charles III (1716-88) becomes king of Spain and hands the Ihrone of SicilY and Naples to his son Ferdinand (1751-1825).
1760 George III (1739--1820) becomes king of Britain.
1760 Russian army sacks Berlin.
1761 Third Family Compact strengthens the alliance between France and Spain.
1762 Catherine II (1729--96) seizes power in Russia and restores strong government.
1762 Spain invades Portugal but is repulsed.

1763 Austria makes the peace of Hubertsburg with Prussia, ending the European phase of the Seven Years War.
1763`Whiteboys` revolt against British rule in Ireland.

1764 Russia and Prussia form an alliance to control Poland.
1764 Jesuits are expelled from France.
1765 Joseph ll (1741-90) is elected Holy Roman emperor and becomes co-ruler, with his mother Maria Theresa (1717-80). of the Austrian empire.
1766 Lorraine formally becomes a part of France.
1767 Jesuits are expelled from Spain.
1767 Catherine II of Russia appoints a commission forthe modernization of the Russian state.
1768 Anti-Russian confederation is formed in Poland; its forma. tionleads to a civil war in which Russia intervenes.

1768 Turkey declares war on Russia in defence of Poland.
1768 Genoa cedes Corsica to France.
1770Loius (1754-93), later Louis XVI, marries Marie Antoinette (1758-93), daughter of Maria Theresa.

1770 Russianffeet defeats the Turks atthe battle of Chesme. 1,770 JohnStruensee (1737-72) attempts radical reforms in Denmark.
1771`Russians conquer the Crimea from the Turks.
1771Louis XV (1710--74) abolishes the French parlements.
1772 JohnStruensee is executed in Denmark after an aristo craliccoup.

1772 Gustavuslll (1746--92) restores the power of the monarchy in Sweden.
1772 Fdllowihg Russian victories against the Turks, Austria and Prussia enforce the first Partition of Poland. Russia, Austria and Prussia annex about 30% of Polish territory.

1773-75 Emelyan Pugachev (1726-75) leads a revoh of cossacks and peasaots in SE Russia.
1714 louis XVI becomes king of France and restores the par. lements.

1774Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji ends the war between Russia and Tu,Rey;Russia gains Crimean ports.

1777 Marques de Pombal (1699-1782) is dismissed in Poougal and exiled.
1777 rrenchfinancier Jacques Necker (1732-1804) is appointed filianc" ",ioister in an attemptto solve the debt crisis.
1778,France declares war on Britain.
1778-79 War of the Bavarian Succession between Prussia and Austria is settled by the treaty ofTeschen.
1779 Spai.n.declares war on Britain and besieges Gibrahar.

1780 Rossi a forms the League of Armed Neutrality against British interference with shipping.
1780 Britain declares war on Holland.
1780 Anti-Catholic Gordon Riots occur in London.
1781 French financier Jacques Necker (1732-1804) is dismissad as French finance minister.

1781 Russia and Austria form an anti-Turkish treatyforcontrol olthe Balkans. 1761 Joseph ll (1741-90) of Austria abolishes serfdQm and esfablishes freedom of worship.

1782 Spanish capture Minorca from the British.
1783 Treaty of Paris ends the war against Britain by France, Spain and the USA.
1783 Russia annexes the Crimea.
1783 William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806) becomes British prime minister.

1784 Treaty of Versailles ends the war between Holland and Brrtain.
1785 Catherine II (1729-96) issues charters recognizing the right of the Russian aristocracy and towns.
1785 Prussia forms the League of German princes against Austria.
1786 FrederiCk William II (1744-97) becomes King of Prussia.

1787 Dutch ruler William V (1748-1806) calls in Prussian troops to suppress the pro-French Patriot Party.

1787 Charles lll (1716-88) of Spain establishes the junta (council of ministers).
1787 French king: Louis XVI (1754-93) dismisses an assembly of notablss and banishes, then recalls, the Paris parlement
1787 Russia allied to Austria attacks the Turks.

1787 Britain, /jail and and Prussia form an alliance against France.
1787 Austria incorporates Belgium as a royal province.
1788 Paris par/ementpresents a list of grievances to Louis XVI, Who rscalls Jacques Necker and summons the States General.
1788 $wederiinvades Russian-controlled Finland.
1789 Austrians capture Belgrade from the Turks; the Russian advance reaches the River Danube.
1789 States General meets at Versailles; the third estate declares themselves the NatlonallConstituentl Assembly and takes the `tennis court oath` to establish a constitution.

1789 Louis XVI dismisses Jacques Necker again; the Paris mob storms theSastilie and establishes a Commune as a provisional government; French general the marquis de Lafayatte (1757-18J4) becomes commander olthe new National Guard; peasantrisings and urban rioting create the `Great Fea(; the NationalAssembly abolishes the feudal system and issues the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

1789 Parisian women march tQ Versailles and escort Louis XVI to Paris; National Assembly moves to Paris and debates a constitution: church property is confiscated by the state.

1789 Belgians rise against Austrian rule and defeat an Austrian army atthe battle ofTurnhou!.
1790 French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre (1759-94) is elected leader of the Jacobin political club in Paris.
1790 Swedes defeat Russians atthe naval battle of Svenksund.

1791 Irish lawyer Wolle Tone (1763-98) founds the society of United Irishmen.
1791 Louis XVI (1754-93) attempts to flee France but is escorted back to Paris; a constMion is proclaimed and elec. tions held for the new Legislative Assembly.
1791 Polish Diet proclaims the May Constitution, which is opposed by Russia.
1792 Turks cede the N coast of the Black Sea to the Russians by the treaty of Jassy.
1792 Paris mob storms the Tuileries palace and imprisons the royal family; revolutionary Georges Danton (1759-94) takes control of a provisional government National Convention is elected; France is proclaimed a republic; louis XVI is put on trial.

1792 Austria and Prussia form an alliance against France; France declares war on Austria; the Prussian commander issues a manifesto calling for the freeing of Louis XVI.

1792 Austria and Prussia invade France; the French defeat the Prussians at the battle of Valmy and the Austrians at the battle of Jemappes; they conquer Belgium and annex Savoy.

1793 Poland loses 60% of its terriory to Russia and Prussia in the second partition of Poland.

1793 Louis XVI is guillotined; Jacobins take control 01 the national convention, revolutionary Jean Marat (b.1743) is mur. dered by Charlotte Corday; a revolutionary tribunal is set up to judge `enemies of the state`; start of the Reign ofTerror; Generallazare Camot (1753-1823) reorganizes the French army; Corsican artillery officer Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) is promoted to general.

1793 Britain, Holland and Spain declare war on France; Austria defeats the French at the battle of NeelWinden and recap. tures Belgium; Britain attempts to invade s France.

1794 French royalists in the Vendee region are exterminated; churches are closed; Robespierre and his followers are con. demned by the National Convention and executed; the revolu. tionarytribunal and political clubs are abolished; end of the Reign ofTerror.

1794 French reconquer Belgium and invade Spain; the Bntish capture Corsica.
1794 Thadeus K6sciuszko (1746-1817) leads a popular rising `" Poland; it is suppressed by Russian and Prussian troops. 1795 Some French aristocrats return and begin a Whrte Terror in s France; new con~ution establishes the Directory `" Paris.

1795 France invades Holland and establishes the Batavian Republic; Prussia makes the separate peace of Basle with France.
1795 Polish state is dissolved by the third Partition of Poland between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
1796 France invades s Germany but is repelled; Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at Lodi and captures Milan; Spain makes the treaty of San IIdefonso vmh France and declares war on Britain; the Spanish fleet is destroyed by the British .t Cape St Vincent

1791 French conquer Venice and N Italy; the peace of Campo Formio ends hostilities with Austria; end offirst war ofthe Coalition against France.

1797 Frederick William III (1770-1840) becomes King of Prussia.
1798 French occupy Rome, establish a republic, and impnson the pope; French invade Switzerland and annex Genev.;French capture the island of Maha; a second Coalibon against France is formed; French conquer s Italy; Russians capture Corfu and the Ionian Islands

1798 British troops defeat the United Irishmen at the b.ttle of Vinegar Hill; an invading French force surrenders.

1799 Austrians and Russians defeatthe French at the battles of Zurich, the T rebbia and Novi; they regain control of Italy and drive the French from Swfuerland; a British invasion of Holland is unsuccessful; Russia vmhdraws from the Coalition.

1799 Bonaparte returns to Paris, seizes power and abolishes the Directory; he establishes the Consulate with himself as First Consul.
1799 Balkan state of Montenegro becomes independent of the Ottoman empire.

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