Broad-leaved evergreen---an evergreen plant with broad leaves that are not needle-shaped.
Caliper---refers to the diameter of a tree. In nursery-landscape practice, caliper is measured 6 inches above the ground level up to and including 4-inch diameter size and 12 inches above the ground level for larger sizes.
Candle---refers to early spring growth of pine shoots before needle expansion.
Central leader---the main stem of the tree from which other branches develop. In most cases, it is the trunk.
Crotch---the angle developed between two connecting branches.
Deciduous---plants that normally have leaves only during the growing season and lose their leaves during the dormant season.
Dieback---the dying back of stems due to adverse weather conditions, insects, diseases or other causes.
Dormant---the period of the year when a plant is not growing.
Espalier---to train a plant on a wire or trellis against a wall or other support.
Lateral---a branch originating from the main trunk.
Multiple stemmed plants---plants with more than one stem form the base compared to plants with only a central leader.
Narrow-leaved evergreen---an evergreen plant with leaves that are needle-shaped.
Permanent branch---a branch that is part of the major growth habit of the tree, usually originating from the trunk.
Radial branch spacing---the distribution of branches around the trunk of a tree.
Scaffold branching---a permanent branch originating from the trunk and becoming a part of the major branching or framework of the tree.