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Europe
Ancient Period Medieval period Morden Period

EUROPE

15,000 BC End olthe coldest period of the most recent ice age.
c.9500 BC Ice sheets start to melt in Europe and North America.
c.8500 Bc.End of Palaeolthic period in Europe; start of Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age); bows and arrows com, into widespread use.
c.6500 BC Farming Iwheat, barley, goats and sheep I starts in Greece and the Balkans.
c.6400 BcEmergence of Karanovo culture in present.day
c.5200 BC Farming starts in Spain S Bulgaria.

mammoth A hairy, elephantlike mammal, the mammoth inhabited the steppes and tundra of North America. Europe and Asia during the ice ages of the Pleistocene period.

c.450OBC Earliest megaliths are built in NW Europe to accommo- date collective burials.

4500 BC Spread of farming reaches the Netherlands.
c.4400-4100 BC Extensive forest clearance takes place in Britain.

c.44OOBc Start of Gumelnita culture in present-day N Bulgaria andsRomania.
c.4250 BcPlough is firstused in the Balkans.

C.4200BC Horses are domesticated (forfood) in Ukraine.

c.4OOBc Olives, figs, almonds and pomegranates are domesti. catedin the E Mediterranean region.

3800 BC Rise of THB I Trichterbecheri farming culture in Denmark and N Germany and Poland.
3500Bc Copper mining starts near present-day Granada in s Spain.
3400 BC Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe (from a grave inPolandl.
3300BC Megalithic temple is built atTarxien, Malta.

c.3200 BC Fanning spreads to s Sweden.
Bc The `Man in the Ice`, equipped with a cast copper axe, dies in a blizzard while crossing the Alps near the present-day Italian-Austrianborder.

3100BcFirst ritual earthworks are constructed at Stonehenge, England.
2500BcHorses are introduced to Ireland.
400 BcPeople of the Beaker culture begin migration from Spain to France, Germany and Britain.

2300 Be Start of Bronze Age in central Europe.

2100 BC Circle of bluestones at Stonehenge, England, is erected.

The ancient Egyptians worshipped a pantheon a/anthropomorphic deities. These deities included (from left to rightl: Hathor, the mother-goddess; Bast, a god of fertility; andThoth, the scribe.

2000 BC Farming cultures of SE Europe collapse, perhaps because of population movements.

2000 BC Rise of Urnfield culture in E central Europe.
c. 2000 BC Greek-speakers migrate into Greece from the N.
c.2000 BC Start of Old Palace period of Minoan civilization In Crete.

1900 BC Large sarsen stones are added to Stonehenge in England.

l650 BC Mycenaean warlords establish control of Greek mainland and engage in long-distance trade with central and N Europe.

l620 BC Massive eruption of the Thira volcano buries the city of Acrotiri on the island of Thira.

l600 BC Cretan palaces are destroyed then rebuilt start of the New Palace period of Minoan civilization.

camel There are two species of camel - the Arabian single-humped dromedary (left) and the two-humped Bactrian (far left)) of central Asia. Camels are well adapted to their desert environment: they are able to walk for eight days without drinking or eating by using up fat stored in their humps.

l500--c.l200 BC Spread of Urn/ield culture to Germany and Italy.
c.I450-1375 bc Mycenaeans conquer Crete; Minoan palaces are sacked.

l225 BC Legendary Trojan War ends with the capture o!Troy by Greeks.

l200 BC Citadel at Mycenae is sacked; end of the Mycenaean civilization.

1100 BC Iron is first used in SE Europe and Italy.

1100 BC Etruscan peoples migrate into N Italy.
l050 BC Start of first period of Greek migration to Aegean islands and w coast of Asia Minor.
Abu Simbel is the location of two rock. cut sandstone temples built by Ramses II. In front of the fa,ade of the Great Temple are four seated colossi of Ramses. two of which are shown here. each over 19m (62ft) high. Between 1963 and 1966. the temples and statuary were cut into some 1.000 blocks and reassembled on higher ground in order to prevent their disappearance under the waters of Lake Nasser. created by the construction of the Aswan High Dam.

100BC Start of the Iron Age in s and central Europe .
c.900 BC Etruscan civilization emerges in N Italy.
c.8OO BC Establishment of a town near salt and iron ore mines at Halstatt, Austria.

c.776 BC Traditional date for the founding of the Olympic Gaines .
c.753 BC Traditional date forthe founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.
c.750 Bc Rise of city-states in mainland Greece.

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