15,OOO BC End of the coldest period of the most recent ice age.
c.10,000 Bc Emergence of Natufian eulture in the Middle Eastto the w of the River Euphrates, based on the intensive gathering of wild cereals.
c.10,OOO Be Earliest firm evidence of domesticated dogs (from a grave in Palestine).
c.9000 BC Eartiest-known permanent human settlements established by Natufian peoples; they build villages with circular houses in partsolthe Middle East and Asia Minor.
c.9000 BC Sheep and goats are domesticated in the Middle East
c.8500 BC Earliest-known rectangular houses are built in Mesopotemia.
c.8500 BC Wheat (einkorn and emmer) and bartey are domesticated in the Middle East
c.85OO BC End of the Palaeolithic period (Old Stone Age) in the Middle East
c.8000 BC First pottery is made in China.
c.8OOO BC Village of Jericho (on the West Bank of the Riller Jordan) has a population of
c.lOOO, and is surrounded by a stone wall with a fortified tower.
c.7000 BC Cattle and pigs are domesticated in the Middle East.
c.7000 BC Pigs are domesticated in China.
c.7000 BC Tropical hortieulture begins in the highlands of New Guinea.
c.6500 Be Farming starts in the NE of the Indian subcontinent
c.6000 BC Domestication of millet and broomcorn in N China and
rice in s China; start of Yangshao culture. .
c.42OO BC Elamites establish the city of Susa in present-day w Iran.
c.3500 Bc Floodplain of the River Indus in present-day Pakistan is settled by farmers who use some copper tools; start of the Early Indus period (c.3500-.2800 Bc).
c.3500 Bc Start of the Uruk period in s Mesopotamia; development of urban civilization.
c.3300 Bc Sumerians (who probably originated in eenlTal Asia) settle. in S Mesopotamia
c.3500 BeFloodplain of the River Indus in present-day Pakistan is settled by farmers who use some copper tools; start of the Early Indus period Ic.3500-c.2800 Be).
c.3500 Be Start of the Uruk period in s Mesopotamia; develop
ment of urban civilization.
c.3300 Bc Sumerians (who probably originated in eenlTal Asia) settle. in S Mesopotamia,
c.3300 Bc city-states develop in Syria and Palestine.
Jamdat Na Bc
c.3000 BC Agriculture starts at oases in SE Arabia.
c.2900 Bc First sizeable town is established on the site o!Troy, NW Asia Minor.
c.2900 Bc Start of the Earty Dynastic period in Sumerian Mesopotamia; the first eontlicts between rival city-states occur.
2800 Bc Akkadians establish a kingdom to the N of Sumeria.
c.2800 Bc Indus valley civilization emerges in present-day Pakistan.
c 2700 Bc Reign of Gilgamesh, the legendary Sumerian king of Uruk.
c.2600 Bc Domestication of breadfruit in SE Asia,
c.2600 Bc Walled towns are built in N China.
c 2500 Bc Potters wheel is first used in China.
c 2500 Bc One-humped dromedary camel in Arabia and twohumped Bactrian camel in central Asia are domesticated.
c. 2400 Bc City of Ebla in N Syria becomes a major trading and commercial centre.
23J4 Be Akkadians under Sargon establish an empire in Mesopotamia.
c.2300 Bc Indus valley civilization starts trade with Mesopotamia
and the Arabian Gulf region via the port of lothal.
2190 Bc Akkadian empire collapses under attack from the nomadic Guti people.
2119 BC Utuhegal, king of Uruk, defeats the Gutians in battle and re-establishes Sumerian control.
2112 BC King Urnammu takes control of Mesopotamia and
founds the Third Dynasty of Ur.
c 2100 BC Amorite nomads move into Mesopotamia from the E.
2004 BC Ur is destroyed by Elamites from present-day sw Iran.
c.2000 BC Start of the Bronze Age in China and SE Asia.
c.I994-1523 Bc Xia dynasty establishes central control over
city-states in N China.
c.l900 BC Start of the decline of the Indus valley civilization; collapse of international trade; port of lothal is abandoned.
1830 Bc Having taken over several Mesopotamian cities, Amorite king Sumuabum founds a new dynasty in Babylonia.
1792-1750 BC King Hammarabi of Babylonia exteMs Amorite control over all Mesopotamia.
c,l650 Bc Hittites settle in Asia Minor and establish a capital at Hattusas,
c l600 Bc Chariots are introduced to China from central Asia.
c,l600 BC Start of Polynesian expansion by boat E from NE New Guinea.
c.l600 BC Aryan peoples begin migrating into the Indus valley region.
1595 Bc Hittites sack Babylonia and establish temporary control in Mesopotamia.
c l55O BC Humans in N Syria unite to create the kingdom of Mitanni.
1530 Bc Kassites from present-day NW Iran invade Mesopotamia and take over Hammurabi`s empire.
1523 Bc Beginning of the Shang dynasty in China.
c,l500 BC Sabaeans establish a Slate in present-day Yemen, sw Arabia.
c, 1400 BC Kassites from present-day NW Iran overthrow the Amorites and establish control in Mesopotamia.
c,1350 Bc Hittites conquer the kingdom ofMitanni; the Hittit.e empire reaches its greatest extent under King Suppiluliumas (c.l380-c-.l346 BC).
c.l300 Bc Emergence of the first Assyrian empire in present-day s Syria.
1275 BC Battle of Kadesh in present-day Syria between the Egyptians and Hittites establishes the frontier between their empires.
c.1220-1190 BC East Mediterranean is raided by Sea Peoples, who weaken the Hittite empire.
c.l200 BC Hittite empire collapses under attacks from the Sea Peoples and the Assyrians.
1154 BC Kassites are conquered by the Assyrians, who extend their empire into s Mesopotamia.
c.1100 BC Rise of Phoenician city-states in present-day lebanon, Palestine and Israel.
c.1100 BC Jews establish the kingdom of Israel in Palestine.
1076 BC First Assyrian empire reaches its greatest extent urider King Tiglath-Pileser I(r.1114-1076 BC).
1030 BC End olthe Shang dynasty in China; start of the Zhou dynasty.
c.l000 BC Polynesian expansion across the Pacific Ocean reaches Samoa and Tonga.
962BC Solomon (r.962-922 Bc) succeeds David (Ir.1000-962 Bc) as king of Israel.
935 Bc Second AssyriBn empire is established by King AssOrdan II.
c.900 BC Kingdom of Urartu is founded in present-day Armenia.
711 BC Western capital of the Chinese Zhou emperors is sacked by warrior nomads.
c.750 Bc Start ofThe Iron Age in China and SE Asia.
722 BC Collapse of central controlin China; Zhou emperors rule in name only; start ofthe Spring and Autumn period rival states emerge.
c. 650 BcScythian peoples from the stappes begin raiding the Middle East.
627 BC Under Chaldean rulers, the Neo-Babylonien kingdom breaks away from the Assyrian empire.
605 BC Medes and Neo-Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar II (d.562 ac) defeatthe Assyrians at the battle of Gerchemish; end ofthe Assyrian empire.
586 BC Neo-Babylonian empire conquers Jerusaleln and destroys the Temple.
550 BC Cyrus the Great (600-529 Bc) of Persia establishes the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
55O Bc Zoroastrianism, based on the teachings of Zoroaster (Zarathustra), becomes the state religionofthe Persian empire.
546 BC Persians.conquer the Gree,k cities in Asia Minor.
545, BC King Bimbisara of Magadhainthe Ganges valley ofJndia initiates a policy of expansion.
538 BcPerSians capture Babylonia.
499-494 BC Greek-speaking cities in w Asia Minor revoa against Persian overlordship; Athens and Sparta lend assistance but the revolt is crushed.
c.460 BC State of Gin in w China is partitioned; end of the Spring and Autumn period.
449 BC Peace treaty signed between Athens and Persia.
c,42O BC Nabataeans establish a kingdom with its capital at Petra in present-day Jordan.
c.403 BC Start of Warring States period in China as rival states battla for overall control.
Persian soldiers Roughly corresponding with modern-day Iran, Persia was ruled by a succession of strong military commanders, including Cyrus the Great (c.590-529 BCE) and Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE).
c.400 BC The s Indian kingdoms of the Cholas and the Pandyas
334 BC Alexander the Great (Alaxander of Macedon, 356-323 BC)
invades Persian Empire, defeats King Darius ll (1380-330 BC) at
the River Granicus, and gains control of Asia Minor.
333 BC Alexander cuts the legendary Gordian knot, and defeats
the Persians atthe battle of Issus on the n border of Syria.
331 BC Victory overthe Persians at the battle of Gaugamela
gives Alexander control of Mesopotamia.
330 BC Alexander`s troops burn the Persian royal palace at Persepolis; Darius is murdered by his bodyguard; end of the Persian empire.
c.330 ac Chinese philosopher Mencius (MengziHc.372-289 BC) expands and develops the ideas of Confucius.