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Ancient Period

1100 Baldwin (1058-1118) becomes king Of Jerusalem.
1118 Order of the Knights Templar Is established in Jerusalem.
1127 Jurchen nomads overrUn N China;the Song dynasty retreats to s China, start of toe Southern Song dynasty.

1149 Second Crusade ends after unsuccessful campai!ms againstthe Turks in Palestine.

1156 CIvilwar between rival clans the Heian period.
1173 Muhammad of Ghur overthrows ,the Ghaznavld dynasty in Afghanistan.
1187 Victory over Christian forces at the battle of Hattin allows the Islamic general Saladin to recapture Jerusalem.

1191 Third Crusade captures the island of Cyprus and the town of Acre but fails to recapture Jerusalem.

1192 Yoritomb,Minamoto (d.1199) institutes`the shogunate in Japan.
1192 Muhammad of Ghur`s victory over the Rajputsatlhe`battie of Thanesar leads to the Islamic conquest of,N,lndla.

1200- 1204 Empires of Nicaea INW Asia Minorl and Trebizond INE Asia Minorl are created out of remnants of the Byzantine empire.

1206 Islamic Delhi Sultanate is established in N India.
1206 Mongo[ warrior Temujin (c.1162-1227) establishes control overthe nomads of the Eurasian steppes and adopts the title Genghis Khan (Emperor otthe Worldl.

1211 Mongol warriors invade Jurchen-controlled N China.
1215 Mongol advance in China reaches the Yellow River.
1218-25 Mongols conquer E Persia.
1219 Last shogun of the Minamoto family killed in Japan; after the brief Shokyu War, the Hoio family takes control.

1220- 1222 Mongols conquer Afghanistan and Invade N India.
1227 Mongols conquer the XI-Xal kingdom in NW China.Genghis Khan (b.c.1162) dies and the Mongol empire is divided between his three sons and a grandson.

1228-29 Sixth Crusade, led by Frederick II of Germany, obtains Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth by treaty,

1229 Shan people establish the kingdom of Assam In E India,
1229 Genghis Khan`s son Ogedei (1189--1241) is elected chief khan of the Mongol empire.

1231 Mongols invade Korea.
1234 Islamic Delhi Sultanate sacks the Hindu city of Ujjain in centrallndi..
1234 Mongols complete their conquest of N China.
1242 Mongols capture the city of Lahore in present day Pakistan.

1244 Jerusalem is captured by Islamic armies.
c.1250 Turks begin settling in Asia Minor.
1253 Mongols under Hulegu (1217-65) invade wPersiaand establish the IIkhanld dynasty.
1253 Mongols capture the N Burma region;Thai peoples migrate s.

1253 Rivalry between Venetian and Genoese merchants at Acre, Palestine, leads to war between the two ltalian city-states.

1255 Mongol khan Mongke (1208-59) bans Taoist books in China.
1256 Mongols exterminate the Assassins in Syria.
1257 Mongol armies conquer present-day N Vietnam.
1258 Mongols launch attacks against the SouthemSong dynasty in s China.

1258 Baghdad is destroyed by Mongol armies.
1259 Following the death of Mongke, the division empire into four khanates becomes permanent

1260 Mongols are defeated by the MamJuks at the battle of AinJalut in Palestine.

1260 Mongol khan Kublai (1215--94) becomes China.

1267 Kublai establishes as his capital the city of Khanbalik,which later becomes Beijing.

1268 Mamluks sack the city of Antioch in Syria.

1268 Mongols invade s China.

1271 Mamluks capture the Christian fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in Syria.

1274 Mongols make an unsuccessful attempt to invade Japan. 12n Mongol forces capture the city of Guangzhou (Canton) in China.
1m Mamluks invade Asia Minor and defeat the Mongols, but later withdraw.

1279 Pandya dynasty completes its conquest of s India; end of the Chola dynasty.
1279 Mongols complete their conquest of s China; end of the Southern Song dynasty, start of the Yuan dynasty,

1280 -1281 Mongols attemptto invade Japan but are [epulsed by samurai; the Mongol fleet is destroyed by a storm - the kamikaze (divine wind).

1282--118 Mongols make repeated attempts to subdue the kingdom of Champa in present-day S Vietnam.
1287 Mongols conquer and destroy the kingdom of Pagan in Bunna.
1291 Mamluks capture the city of Acre, Palestine, the lastremnant of the Crusader kingdoms.

1292-93 Mongols attempt a seaborne invasion of Java.
1294 Death of the Mongol Chinese emperor Kublai (b.1215).
1297 Delhi Sultanate conquers the Hindu kingdom of Guiarat in wlndia.

1299 Mongol Chaghati khanate of central Asia invades N India.
1300 Turkish general Osman I (1258-1326) proclaims himself sultan of the Turks in Asia Minor; start of the Ottoman empire.

1300 Thai peoples under King Rama Kamheng establish a king dom around the city of Sukhothai in present-day Thailand.

1303 Delhi Sultanate conquers the Rajputfortress of Chitor, the last Hindu stronghold in N India.

1306 Chaghati Mongols are expelled from India by the Delhi Sultanate.

1311 Delhi Suitanate annexes the Pandya kingdom in s India.
1313 Delhi Suitanate conquers central India.
1320 Turkish Tughluk dynasty takes over control of the Delhi Sultanate.

1323 Delhi Sultanate conquers the Hindu kingdom ofTelingana in India.
1330 Hindu kingdom of Madjapahit in Java begins extending its control over nearby islands.

1333 Emperor Go-daigo tries to re-establish imperial power in Japan.
1335 Mongollikhanid dynasty in Persia is overthrown.
c.1335 Epidemic of plague, which later becomes known as the Black Death, breaks out in China.
1336 Revolt establishes the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar ill s India; start of the Sangama dynasty.


1336 Civil wars break out in Japan, which is split between rival imperial courts.
1337 Ottoman Turks capture Nicaea, the last remaining Byzantine territory in Asia Minor.

1338 Bengal breaks away from the Delhi Suitanate to become an independent Islamic state.

1340- 1341-43 Epidemic of plague -the Black Death - sweeps across China.

1344 Flooding of the Vellow River devastates E China.
1346 Independent Islamic dvnasty is founded in Kashmir, N India.

1347 Thai capital is moved to the city of Avutthaya.
1350 Unrest begins in China among workers repairing the Grand Canal. They are followers o!the Buddhist White lotus cull and wear red turbans.

1353 Kingdom of laos is established in SE Asia.
1355 Red Turbans, led by former monk Hong-wu (1328-98), foment a popular revolt against Mongol rule in China.

Black Oeath Originating in China c.1335, the Black Death spread w across Asia and Europe, via trade and pilgrimage routes, reaching the Crimea in 1347, as illustrated in the larger map. From the Crimea, the plague spread throughout

1360 -1367 Victory in battle by the Delhi Sultanate over the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar leads to the massacre of 400,000 civilians.

1368 Red Turbans expel the Mongols from China and Hong-wu (1328-981 becomes emperor. start of the Ming dynasty.

1369 Thais sack the Khmer capital of Angkor
1369 Tamerlane (1338-1405), or Timur, a Turkish soldier, rebels against the Chaghati Mongols and captures their capital, Samarkand.
13n Islamic empire of Java conquers Hindu Sumatra.
1381-117 Tamerlane (Timur, 1338-1405) invades and conquers Persia.
1382 All districts of China are reunited under Ming control.
1389 Islamic empire of Java collapses after the death of king Rajasanagara (b.I334).

1392 Voshimitsu (1358-14081 becomes ruler of Japan and establishes the Muromachi shogunate.

1392 General Vi Song-gye establishes the Vi (Chason) dynasty in Korea.

1393-94 Tamerlane invades and conquers Mesopotamia. 1394 Islamic kingdom of Jaunpur in N India is established.

1398-99 Tamerlane invades N India and sacks Delhi.
1400 Tamerlane (Timur, 1338-14051 invades and conquers Syria.

1504 Warlord Babur 1148~15301 captures Kablil,.Afyhanistan.
1506 Portuguese build a fort at Cochin in India.
1507 Portuguese sack the port of Muscatnea,theniouth ofthe Arabian Gulf.
1508 Turkish fleet destroys some Portuguese ships at the Indianport of Chaul.
1509 Portuguese destroy a combined Turkish-lhdiM,fleet hear the island of Dill.
1510 Portuguese conquer Goa and make ittheitcapitalin India.
1511 Portuguese, led by Afonso d`Albuqllerque 11453`-01515), capture Malacca in Malaya.

1512 Portuguese reach the Spice Islands (the Moluccas).
1514 Ottoman Turks invade Persia and defeat the Safavids at the battle of Chaldiran.
1515 Ottoman Turks conquer Kurdistan.
1515 Portuguese capture and fortify Hormuz in Yei)1en.
1516 Ottoman Turks defeat the Egyptien Mamluks and,the Persian Safavids at the battle of Marj Dabik in Syria.

1516 Portuguese establish a trading post at Guangzhou (Canton) in s China.
1517 Portuguese establish a trading post at Columbo in Ceylon.
1520- 1521 Ferdinand Magellan 1148Q-..15211 discovers and claims the Philippine Islands!at Spain.
1521 Portuguese establish a settlement on`Amboina, one of the Spice Islands.

1522 Portuguese traders are expelled from China.
1523 Afghan warlord Babur (148~1530) invades India and captures the city of Lahore.
1526 Babur conquers the w half of the Delhi Sultanate aftetthe battle of Panipat and establishesJhe.Niogulempire.

1526 Portuguese explorers reach New Guinea.
1529 Victory at the battle of the River Gagracompletes the Mogul conquest of N India.
1534 Ottomans conquer Mesopotamia.
1537 Portuguese obtain trading concessions at Macao on the coast of s China.
1538 Alliance of Ottoman Turks and Gujaratisfails toevictthe Portuguese from Diu in India.
1538 Turkish naval expedition conquers the w coast of ,!\rabia.
1539 Mogul dynasty in India is overthrown by the Afghan warlord Sher Shah (d.15451.
5140 -1543 Portuguese first make contact with Japan.

1546 With Portuguese assistance, Tabin Shwehti (r.1531-501 makes himsea king of Burma.

1555 Burmese invade N Thailand.
1555 Peace treaty is signed between the Ottoman Turks and Safavid Persia.
1556 Emperor Akbar 1(1542-16051 restores Mogul rule in India and defeats Hindu forces at the second battle of PaniPet
1557 Portuguese establish a colony at Macao in China.

1561 Moguls under Emperor Akbar I (1542-1605) conquer Malwa in central India.

1563 Chinese destroy Japanese pirates who have been raiding coastal crties.

1565 Moguls conquer the Hindu kingdom 01 Vijayanagar in s India after the Battle ofTalikota.
1568 Oda Nobunaga 11534-82) seizes power in central Japan; start 01 the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

1570 Port 01 Nagasaki in Japan is opened to 10 reign traders.
1571 Spanish/ound the city 01 Manila in the Philippines.
1513 Moguls under Akbar I conquer Gujarat in wlndia

1576 Moguls conquer Bengal in E India. ~ Globe Theatre Built in 1599 but destroyed by fire in 1613, the Globe Theatre was rebuilt (1614) in the form shown above. It was a tiled and brick-built, three-storey structure, surrounding an uncovered yard, where poorer patrons could stand. It was a small building, with a diameter of only 25m 183ft), but with its galleries it could hold 2000. It was closed down by the Puritans in 1642, demolished in 7644 and finally rebuilt and reopened in 7995.

~ 1581 The Cossack chieftain Yermak Timoleyevich (d.1584) begins the Russian conquest 01 Siberia.

1581 Akbar I conquers Afghanistan.
1581 Turkish ships sack the Portuguese fortress at Muscat.
1583 Mogul Emperor Akbar I proclaims toleration of allreligions in India.

1584 General Toyotomi Hideyoshi 11536-981 establisheshimsell as ruler 01 central Japan.
1586 Abbas I (1571-16291 becomes Shah olSalavid Petsia.
1590 Ottoman Turks wrest control 01 Georgia and Azerbaijan lrom Persia.
1590 Hideyoshi conquers E and N Japan, teuniting tile country under his rule.

1592 Akbar conquers s Pakistan.
1592 Japanese invade Korea, but are lorced out by the Chinese.

1597 Japanese again invade Korea, then withdraw.
1597 Persians deleatthe nomadic Uzbeks and expel them from w Alghanistan.
1598 Tokugawa leyasu 115<\3-,-16161 seizes power in Japan on the death 01 Hideyoshi.

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