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Ancient Period

1265 Rebellious English barons are defeated by Prince Edward (later Edward I) at the battle of Evesham.
1271 Marco Polo (1254-1324) departs for China.
1277 Visconti family (Ghibellines) gains control of Milan.
1277 Genoese merchants establish the first regular AtlantIC sea-route between the Mediterranean Sea and N Europe.

1278 After victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia at the battle of Marchfeld, Rudolph of Habsburg gains control of Austria .
1278 Edward I (1239-1307) of England invades and conquers Wales.

1282 French soldiers in Palenmo are massacred during the `Sicilian Vespers`; the Sicilians invite Pedro of Aragon to be their king.

1283 Teutonic Knights complete the conquest of Prussia.
1284 Italian city-state of Genoa defeats Pisa at the battle of Meliora.
1285 Bulgarian kingdom disintegrates under Mongol overlorship.
1291 Three Swiss cantons revolt against Habsburg rule and form a confederation.

1291 Knights of St John move to Cyprus.
1297 William Wallace (1270-305) leads a rising against English rule in Scotland.

1297 English king Edward I (1239-1307) invades France in suport of Flanders.
1297 French king Philip IV (1269-1314) occupies Flanders (NE France and Belgium).
1299 Genoa defeats Venice at a naval battle near the island of Curzola in the Adriatic Sea.
1302 Citizens of Randers defeat the French at the battle of the Spurs at Courtrai.
1305 Randers submits to French rule.
1305 English execute the Scottish rebel William Wallace (b.1270).
1307 Knights Templar are disbanded in Paris.
1309 French king Philip IV (1269-1314) compels the pope,ClementV, to move to Avignon in s France; start of the`Babylonian Captivity`.

1309 Teutonic Knights make Marienburg their capital.

1309 A Bourse Istock exchangel is founded at Bruges, present day Belgium.
1309 Knights 01 St John move to the island of Rhodes.
1310 City-state of Venice establishes its Council ofTen.

1314 Scots, led by Robert the Bruce (1274-1329), deleatthe English atthe battle of Bannockburn and establish Scottish independence.

1314 First Venetian merchant ships visit N Europe.
1315 Swiss defeat the Austrian army at the battle of Morgarten.

1319 Sweden and Norway are united under the rule of Magnus Vll(1316-74).

1325 Ivan I becomes ruler 01 the Grand Duchy of Moscow under the overlordship olthe khanate of the Golden Horde.

1328 Seat 01 the Russian Church is moved from Vladimir to Moscow.
1328 Death of the French king Charles IV Ib.I294) ends the Capetian dynasty; start of the Valois dynasty.

1329 Byzantines capture the island of Chios lrom Genoa.

1330 After deleating the Greeks and Bulgarians at the battle of Velbuzdhe, Serbia becomes the dominant power in the Balkans VII 11316-74).

1331 Cities in s Germany, including Ulm and Augsburg, establish the Swabian League.
1332 Gerhard 01 Holstein, supported by the Hanseatic League, seizes the Danish crown.
1332 Lucerne is the first city to join the Swiss Confederation.

1337 Edward III (1312-77) of England lays claim to the french throne; beginning olthe Hundred Years War to( 1453).

1339 City of Genoa in Italy adopts a republican constJtution.

1339 Island city of Venice conquers the town ofTrevlSo on the Italian mainland.

1340 English defeat the French at a naval battle near the port of Sluys (in present-day Belgium).

1340 Spanish king of Castile, Allonso XI (1311-50), decisively repels an Islamic attack at the battle of Rio Salado.

1341-47 Civil war further disrupts the Byzantine empire.
1344 Hungarian king louis (1326-82) expels the Mongols from Transylvania.

1346 Black Death sweeps through s Russia.
1346Teutonic Knights gain control of Estonia.
1346 English defeat the French at the battle of Crecy, the first major battle of the Hundred Years War
1347 English capture the French port of Calais.
1347 Black Death reaches Constantinople, Italy and s france; in 1348 it reaches Spain. N France and Britain; in 1349 Gennany and Scandinavia. This initial outbreak kills c.25% of Europe`s population.

1348 Danish king Waldemar IV (1320-75) recaptures Jutland from German control.
1351 War breaks out in Italy between Aorence and Milan.
1352 Ottoman Turks establish a foothold in Europe at Galhpoh.
1354 Genoese destroy the Venetian fleet at the sea battle of Sapieanza.
1356 English, led by Edward the Black Prince (1330-76). defeat the French at Maupertuis and capture the french king.

1356 Hanseatic league (a commercial union of c.16O Gennan. Dutch and Remish townsl is formally established.

1358 Rising in Paris, led by Etienne Marcellc.1316-58I, and peasant revolls in the countryside weaken france.

1360 By the Peace of Bretigny, Edward lll (1312-77) of England gives up his claim to the French throne in return for sovereignty over sw France.

1361 Ottoman Turks capture the city of Adrianople; the Byzantine empire is reduced to the city of Constantinople..
1361-63 Second outbreak of the Black Death devastates parts of Europe.
1361-70 Wars between the Hanseatic league and Denmark leave the league dominant in the Baltic region.

1367 Civil war breaks out between the Swabian league and the German emperor.

1369 French king Charles V (1337-8O) attacks English possessions in France.
1370 Teutonic Knights defeat the lithuanians at the battle of Rudau.
1370 Bastille fortress is buill in Paris.
1371 Robert II (131&-901 becomes king of Scotland; start of the Stuart dynasty.

1372 Swabian league is defeated.

1372 Spanish, allied with the French, defeat the English at the sea battle of la Rochelle.
1375-78 War of the Eight Saints is fought between florence and the papacy.
1376 Swabian league is revived by the city ofUlm.
1377 Pope returns to Rome; end of the `Babylonian Captivity.
1378-1417 Schism occurs in the Catholic Church with rival popes at Rome and Avignon.

1378 Genoa captures the town of Chioggia, S of Venice.
1378 Randers revolls against French rule.
1380 Venice recaptures Chioggia and destroys the Genoese fleet
1381 Ciompillow-paid workersl revolt against the rule of the Guelphs in Florence.
1381 Peasants` Revoll in England ends with the death of rts leader, WatTyier.
1382 Flanders revoll is crushed at the battle of Roosebeke by Philip the Bold (1342-1404), who becomes overlord of the region.
1383 Venice captures Cortu.
1385 Victory at the battle of Aljubarrota establishes Portuguese independence from Spain.

1386-88 Milan conquers the Italian crties of Verona, Vicenza and Padua.
1386 King Jagiello (1351-1434) of Poland forms a union with the Grand Duchy of lithuania.
1387 Danish regent Margaret (1363-1412) becomes queen of Sweden and Norway.
1389 Ottoman Turks defeatthe Serbs at the battle of Kosovo.

1388-95 Tamerlane invades and conquers the territory of the Golden Horde but fails to take Moscow.
1396 Sigismund (1368-1437) of Hungary attempts to break the Turkish encirclement of Constantinople but is defeated at the battle of Nicopolis.

1396 Bulgaria becomes part of the Ottoman empire.
1397Treaty of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden and Norway under Danish control.

1397 Bank of Medici is established in Florence.
1399 Richard II (1367-1400) of England is overthrown by Henry IV (1367-1413); end of the Plantagenet dynasty, start 01 the lancaster dynasty.

1400 Welsh led by Dwain Glyn Do/r (Owen Glendower, c.1359-1416) rebel against English rule.
1404 Territory of the Teutonic Knights reaches its greatest extent after acquisrtion of Brandenburg.
1405 Venetians attack and occupy the cRy of Padua in NE Italy, initiating their conquest of the Terrafirma.

1406 Italian city of Florence gains access to the sea through cpntrol of neighbouring Pisa.
1408 Khanate of the Golden Horde unsuccessfully besieges Moscow, but re-establishes its overlordship

1410 Polish-lithuanian armies defeat tlie Teutonic Knights at the battle of Tannenberg.

1413 HenryV (1387-1422) becomes king of England and renews claims against France.
1414 Attempted rising by Lollards !followers oftlie religious reformer John Wycliffel in England is suppressed.
1415 Czech religious reformer Jan Hus Ib.13691 is executed.
1415 Henry V of England invades France, wins the battle of Agincourt, and occupies Paris.
1416 Venetians defeat the Ottoman Turks in a sea banle.
1417 Council 01 Constance restores a single papacy, ending the Great Schism.
1419 Predominan~y Czech supporters of Hus rise against German rule in Bohemia Ithe defenestratlOn of Praguel; start of the Hussrte Wars.
1420-22 Supporters of Jan Hus (1369-1415) in Bohemia defeat a Crusade against them led by Sigismund (1368-143)1 of Hungary.
1425 Cities of Florence and Venice ally against Milan.
1427 War breaks out between Denmark and the Hanseatic league.
1427 Venetians conquerthe city of Bergamo in NE Italy, and complete their Terrafirma.
1429 Joan of Arc (1412-31) leads French forces to relieve the English siege of Orleans; she escorts Charles VII(1403-61) of France to his coronation at Reims.

1429 Florence attacks the nearby city of Lucca.
1430 Ottoman Turks capture the cRy of Thessaloniki from the Venetians.
1431 Joan of Arc is executed by the English.
1433 Hungarian king Sigismund, also king of Germany and Bohemia, is crowned Holy Roman emperor.
1434 Defeat by the Holy Roman emperor at the battle of Lipany leads to civil war between moderate and radical Hussites; it ends in the defeat of the radicals.
1434 Cosimo de` Medici (1389-1464) bacomesthe effective ruler of Florence.
1435 Spanish ruler of Sicily, Alfonso V, unites his kingdom With that of Naples.
1436 French recapture Paris from the English.
1438 Albert of Habsburg (1397-1439) becomes German emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia as Albert II.
1440 Alliance between Florence and Venice defeats Milan at the battle of Anghiari.
1444 Ottoman sultan Murad ll(1403-51) defeats a Christian army atthe battle of Varna in Bulgaria.

1445 African slaves are auctioned for the first time In Portugal.
1449 Milan defeats Venice and conquers the Lombardy region Of N ItaIy.

1449 French invade the English territory in w France.
1450 Denmark and Norwav are united under Danish king Christian I (1426-81).
1450 Sforza familv gains control of Milan
1452 Frederick III (1415-93) becomes the first Habsburg Holy Roman emperor.
1453 Ottoman Turks besiege and capture Constantinople, which is henceforth known as Istanbul.

1453 French victory over the English at the battle of Castillon near Bordeaux marks the end of the Hundred Vears War.
1454 Peace of Lodi brings to an end the wars in Italy between Milan, Venice and Florence.
1455 Wars of the Roses break out in England between the flval dvnasties of Lancaster and Vork.
1456 Turks capture Athens.

1457 Poland captures Marienberg from the Teutonic Knights who move their capital to Konigsberg.
1459 Turks conquer Serbia.

1462 Ivan III (1440-505) becomes the first ruler of Moscow not to pavtribute to the Golden Horde; end of the lartarVoke` 1466 Teutonic Knights accept Polish overlordship.

1468 Charles the Bold (1433-77), duke of Burgundv (NE France, Belgium and Holland), allies with England against the French.
1469 Lorenzo `il Magnifico` Medici (1449-92) becomes ruler of Rorence.
1470 Louis XI (1423-83) of France allies with the Swiss agamst Burgundv.
1471 Right to feud is formally abolished in Germany in an attemptto stem rising lawlessness.
1475 Ottoman Turks conquer the Crimean peninsula on the N coast of the Black Sea

1477 Inquisition is revived in Spain.
1477 Charles the Bold is killed at the battle of Nancy. France occupies parts of Burgundy; the Low Countries come under Habsburg control bV marriage.

1478 Albania is conquered bvthe Ottomans.
1479 Habsburg heir, Maximilian (1459-1519), defeats French attempts to gain control of the Low Countries.
1479 Ferdinand V (1452-1516) becomes Spanish king, uniting Castile and Aragon.
1483 Tomas Torquemada (1420-98) becomes head of the Spanish Inquisition.
1485 Battle of Bosworth ends the Wars of the Roses in England Henry VII (1457-1509) becomes king; start of the Tudor dynasty.
1486 Habsburg Maximilian I (1459-1519) is elected king of Germany.

1488 Great Swabian League of princes, knights and cities is fonmed in s Germany.
1492 Spanish, under Ferdinand V (1452-1516) and Isabella I (1451-1504), conquer the Islamic emirate of Granada; the whole of Spain is united under Christian rule

1493 Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman emperor.

1493 Ottoman Turks invade Croatia.
1493 BV the treaty of Senlis, France cedes the rest of Burgundy to Habsburg control.
1494-95 French under Charles VIII (1470-98) invade Italy, cature Rorence and Naples, but are then forced to retreat.
1497 Denmark enforces union on Sweden.

1499 French under Louis XII (1462-1515), allied with Venice, invade Italy and capture Milan.

1499 Switzerland wins political independence from the Habsburg empire in the Swabian War.
1499 Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), son of Pope Alexander IV, begins the conquest of central ltaly.

1501 French invade Italy and conquer Naples.
1501 Portuguese establish a direct sea-route to import pepper and spices from India into Europe.
1504 Spain regains control of Naples.
1509 French-led coalition attacks and captures Venetian.con. trolled towns in N Italy.

1511 Henry VIII (1491-1547) of England joins the Holy League against France in Italy.
1512Hanseatic League permits Dutch ships to trade in the Baltic Sea.
1513 French are defeated at the battle of Novara in Italy.
1513 English destroy the Scottish army at the battle of Flodden.
1515 A marriage alliance gives the Habsburgs control over Spain.

1515 German emperor obtains Bohemia and Hungaryfrom Poland in exchange for Prussia
1515 After defeat by the French at the battle of Marignano, Switzerland adopts a policy of neutrality.
1517 Pope Leo X (1475-1521) revives the sale of indulgences to pay for the rebuilding of St Peter`s cathedral in Rome.
1517 German priest and reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546) writes his 95 theses against Church corruption; start of the Reformation in Europe.

1518 Swiss religious reformer Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) begins preaching in Zurich.
1519 Charles V (1500-58), Habsburg king of Spain and Burgundy, wins election as German emperor over Francis I (1494-1547) of France.
1521 Atthe diet of Worms, Emperor Charles V (1500-58) can. demns Martin Luther`s ideas.
1521 Ottoman Turks capture Belgrade and raid s central Europe.
1521--26 First war for control of Italy is fought between France and Spain.

1522 Knights of St John surrender the island of Rhodes to the Turks after a siege.
1523 Gustavus 1(1495-1560) establishes the Swedish state; start of the Vasa dynasty.
1524-25 Violent peasant uprisings sweep across Germany.
1525 Spain defeats France at the battle of Pavia in Italy and captures Francis 1(1494-1547).

1526Kirg I.ouis Il (b.1506) of Hungary is killed in the battle of Mohacs againstthe Ottoman Turks; the Hungarian crown passes to the Habsburgs.
1527 During his second Italian war (1525-29), SpanISh king and Habsburg emperor Charles V sacks Rome.
1528 Genoese admiral Andrea Doria (1465-1560) frees Genoa from French Jule.
1529 Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Vienna.
1529 German emperor Charles Vends toleration of Lutheran refrms. Some German princes protest, becoming Protestants.

1531 War breaks out between Protestant and Catholic cantons in Switzerland.
1531 Hungary!s partitioned between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
1531 Protestant rulers in Germany form the Schmalkaldic League.
1534 Act of Supremacy is passed in England, making Henry VIII (1491-1547) head of the English Church.

1541 French religious reformer John Calvin (1509-64) estab lishes religious rule in Geneva.
1541 Ottoman Turks capture Budapest and conquer Hungary.
1545 Council of Trent meets to reform the Catholic Church.
1546-47 Charles V defeats the Protestants in the Schmalkaldic War in s and central Germany.

1547 Protestant reformer John Knox (1514-72) is arrested by French soldiers in Scotland.
1547 Ivan IV (the Terrible, 1530-84) of Moscow is crowned first tsar of Russia.
1552 Emperor Charles V invades E France.
1553 Followirg the death of Henry VIIi in 1547, and his only son, Edward VI, in 1553, his daughter Mary (1515-58) becomes queen as Mary I. She marries the future Philip II (1527-98) of Spain and restores Catholic worship in England; Proteslants are persecuted.
1555 Religious peace of Augsburg establishes freedom ofwor. ship in Germany.

1556 Charles V abdicates; his empire is split between Ferdinand I (Austria and Germany) and Philip II (Spain, Low Countries, parts of Italy. and America).

1557 Russia invades Livonia, the farmer territory of the Teutonic Knights.
1558 English, allied to Spain, lose the port of Calais to the French.

1558 Ivan IV orders the colonization of Siberia.
1558 Elizabeth 111533-16031 becomes Queen of England. 1559 Philip II (1527-98) of Spain defeats france; the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis restores Naples and the Low Countries to Spanish control.

1560 Scottish Parliament establishes Presbyterianism as the state religion.
1560 Charles IX (1550-74) becomes boy-king of france with his mother Catherine de Medici 1151\1-89) as regent. 1562 Massacre of Huguenots (French Protestants) at Vassy in France starts a series of religious civil wars.

1563 Start of the Catholic Counter Reformation in s Germany.
1564 Boyars IRussian aristocratsl revolt against Ivan IV (1530-84).

1566 Dutch nobles lorm an anti-Spanish alliance.
1567 Duke of Alba enforces Spanish control in the low Countries.
1569 Poland and Lithuania unite under Polish control. 1569-71 Revolt by former Muslims crushed in Spain.

1570 Novgorod destroyed by armies lrom Moscow.
1570 Turks attack Cyprus.
1571 Stock Exchange established in london, England.
1571 Venetian and Spanish fleets deleatthe Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in the Mediterranean Sea.

1572 Thousands of Huguenots IFrench Protestants I massacred on St Bartholomew`s Day.
1573 Venetians abandon Cyprus to the Turks.
1574 Dutch under William lithe Silentl, Prince of Orange, open dykes to relieve the Spanish siege of leyden.
1576 Following the Spanish sack of Antwerp, the Outch provinces unrte under William I (the Silent).
1579 Dutch republic formed; Belgium remains under Spanish control.
1580 King Philip II of Spain succeeds to the throne of Portugal and the two countries unrte under Habsburg rule.
1581 Spain agrees a peace treatywrth the Ottoman Turks.

1584 Dutch leader William I of Orange (b.1533) murdered and succeeded by Maurice of Nassau (1567-1625).
1585 Queen Elizabeth I of England refuses the Outch throne but takes the Netherlands under her protection by the Treaty 01 Nonsuch.
1585-89 War 01 the Three Henrys lought for the french throne.

1588 Spanish invasion fleet (the Armada) sent against England is defeated at the naval Battle of Gravelines.

1589 Russian Church becomes independent o!the Greek Orthodox Church.
1589 Victorious Henry IIl (b.1551) 01 France assassinated; Henry IV (1553-1610) accedes to the throne; start of the Bourbon dynasty.
1593 War breaks out in Transylvania between Austria and the Ottoman Turks.
1595 After intervening in the Livonian wars, Sweden acquires Estonia by the Treaty ofTeusina.

1598 Boris Godunov (1551-1605) becomes Tsar of Russia.
1598 Edict of Nantes grants limited freedom of worship and legal equalrty for Huguenots IProtestantsl in France.

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