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Asia & Africa
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200 B.C. : Bantu peoples reach the E coast of Africa.

249 Bishop Cyprian of Carthage Id.258) leads the Christians during the persecution initiated by the Roman emperor Decius (200-51).

c285 King Aphilas 01 Aksum invades sw Arabia. "For in all adversity of fortune the worst sort of misery is to have been happy." Boethius (Consolation of Philosophy)

305 Anthony the Hermit (c.250-c.3551 establishes the tradition of Christian monasticism in Egypt.

343 King Ez.ana of Aksum is convertedto Christianity by missionaries from Egypt.

350 King Ez.ana conquers the kingdom olMeroe and sacks the capital city.

Gothic soldiers The Goths were Eastern Germanic warrior people who invaded parts of the Roman Empire from the 3rd to the 5th century. Their principle weapon was the spear They were adept at coping with harsh winter conditions and wore cloaks of fur into battle.

c.400 Seafaring peoples from Indonesia begin settling on the island of Madagascar off the E coast of Africa.

429 Vandals under Gaeseric cross from Spain to N Africa.

439 Vandals capture the city of Carthage and establish a kingdom.

451 Council of Chalcedon results in the Coptic Christians in Egypt splitting away from the influence of Rome and Constantinople.

468 Combined forces of the E and W Roman empire make disastrous attempt to invade Vandal kingdom.

533 Byzantine armies under General Belisarius (505--65) recap ture N Africa from the Vandals.

536 Byzantine authorities close the temple at Philae in Egypt; this marks the end of traditional Egyptian religion.

c.55O Kingdom of Ghana is established in W Africa.

570 Aksumite armies make an unsuccessful attemptto con quer the city of Mecca in w Arabia.

Hagia Sophia Built for Emperor Justinian. Hagia Sophia is a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture. This illustration shows acanthus leaf decoration from an arch within it The elaborate internal ornamentation of much Byzantine architecture contrasts with the simple exteriors.

616 Sassanians conquer Egypt

628 Byzantine emperor Heraclius (57-41) restores Byzantine control over Egypt

639--42 Arab armies conquer Egypt

648 Byzantine forces temporarily hak Arab expansion in N Africa.

c.65O Traders from Arabia establish the first Islamic settlements on the E coast of Africa.

652 Arab rulers of Egypt agree to respect the existing borders ofthe Nubian kingdoms.

670 Arab forces move into present-day Tunisia.

697 Arab forces destroy the Byzantine city of Carthage.

702 Aksumites attack the port of Jiddah in present-day Saudi Arabia.

702-11 Arab conquests are extended w along the N African coastline to the Atlantic ocean.

739 Port of Zanzibar on the E coast of Africa is founded by Islamic traders from s Arabia.

1054 Berber chieftain Abu Bakr (d.1087) launches anempi,e. building campaign in N Africa and establishes the Almoravid dynasty.

1070 Abu Bakr founds the city of Marrakesh In s Morocco.

1075-77 Almoravids conquer N Morocco and w Algeria.

1076 City of Kumbi, capital of Ghana, is sacked by an Almoravid army.

Romanesque afchitecture The west fafade of the Cathedral of San Maggiori, Pisa, Italy, is a fine example of Romanesque architecture. Construction of the cathedral, designed by Buscheto, started in 1063, was interrupted in 1095 and resumed in 1099.

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